There was no country with the name Pakistan before 1947. The Muslims of India had forced the division of India on religious lines and Pakistan emerged as a separate homeland for the Indian ummah in August, 1947. True to its name, Pakistan drove out Hindus and Sikhs from its western wing in 1947-48. The process of driving out the Hindus from its eastern wing began thereafter; though somewhat slowly.
Nehru's Indifference towards Hindus from East Pakistan
Nehru had no love for Bengali Hindus. This is evident from his letters that he had sent to Dr. B.C. Roy, the then Chief Minister of West Bengal. Letter dated 16 August, 1948: I have your letter of August 4 about the refugees from East Bengal. I realize your difficulties and naturally we should do what we can to help you. But as I told you long ago there is no reasonable solution of the problem, if there is a large influx from East Bengal. That is why I have been terribly anxious throughout to prevent this, whatever might happen. I still think that every effort should be made to prevent it. I think it was a very wrong thing for some of the Hindu leaders of East Bengal to come to West Bengal. Letter dated 22 August, 1948: I have been quite certain from the beginning that everything should be done to prevent Hindus in East Bengal from migrating to West Bengal. If that happened on a mass scale it would be a disaster of the first magnitude. Running away is never a solution to a problem. I think the Hindu leaders of East Bengal who have come away have done no service to their people. If, as you suggest, things have gone too far already, naturally we shall all do what we can, but I shudder at the prospect and at the magnitude of the human misery that will come in its train. To the last, even if there is war, I shall try to check migration.
Dr. Syama Prasad Mookerjee raises the issue of East Bengal Hindus.
Dr. S.P. Mookerjee was a Member of Nehru's Government. He took up the cause of Hindus from East Pakistan in a meeting of the Cabinet. This is what he is reported to have observed at the meeting. Addressing Nehru, Dr. Mookerjee said : When Muslims in Kashmir were attacked, you sent Indian armed forces and spent crores of rupees. What do you care for us Bengali Hindus? What
do you care for the criminal assaults on our women? Suddenly Panditji stood up and began to advance towards Syama Prasad. That tiger of Bengal also raised his hand and stepped forward. For a moment, it looked as if the Cabinet meeting would become a battle field. Meeting of the Cabinet ended thereafter. This is quoted in the book Soundings in Modern South Asian History edited by D.A. Law, Weidenfield & Nicolson, London, 1968.
Nehru-Liaquat Agreement regarding Security and Rights of Minorities, New Delhi, 8 April 1950
In order to stem the tide of Hindus being driven out of East Pakistan, Nehru signed an agreement with his Pakistani counterpart. The Agreement inter alia provided that both India and Pakistan shall ensure to the minorities, complete equality of citizenship, a full sense of security, in respect of life, culture, property and personal honour, freedom of movement within each country and freedom of occupation, speech and worship.
Both governments declare their rights to be fundamental and undertake to enforce them effectively.
Dr. Mookerjee resigns on the issue of East Bengal Hindus
Shortly thereafter Dr. Mookerjee resigned and this is what he inter alia told the Lok Sabha on 19th April, 1950 : My differences are fundamental and it is not fair or honourable for me to continue as a Member of the Government whose policy I cannot approve of. The circumstances that have led to my resignation are primarily concerned with the treatment of minorities in Pakistan especially in East Bengal…The recent Agreement (Nehru-Liaquat Pact), to my mind, offers no solution. The establishment of a homogenous Islamic state is Pakistan's creed and a planned extermination of Hindus and Sikhs and expropriation of their properties constitute its settled policy.
Dr. Mookerjee gave the following reasons for not being a party to Nehru-Liaquat Agreement :
First - We had two such Agreements since Partition for solving the Bengal problem and they were violated by Pakistan without any remedy open to us. Any Agreement which has no sanction will not offer any solution.
Secondly, the crux of the problem is Pakistan's concept of an Islamic State and the ultra-communal administration based on it. The Agreement sidetracks this cardinal issue and we are today exactly where we were previous to the Agreement.
Thirdly - India and Pakistan are made to appear equally guilty, while Pakistan was clearly the aggressor. The Agreement provides that no propaganda will be permitted against the territorial integrity of the two countries and there will be no incitement to war between them. This almost sounds farcical so long as Pakistan troops occupy a portion of our territory of Kashmir and warlike preparations on its part are in active operation.
Fourthly - Events have proved that Hindus cannot live in East Bengal on the assurance of security given by Pakistan. We should accept this as a basic proposition. The present Agreement on the other hand calls upon minorities to look upon Pakistan Government for their safety and honour which is adding insult to injury and is contrary to assurances given by us previously.
Fifthly - There is no proposal to compensate those who have suffered nor will the guilty be ever punished, because no one will dare give evidence before a Pakistan Court. This is in accordance with bitter experience in the past.
Sixthly - Hindus will continue to come away in large numbers and those who have come will not be prepared to go back. On the other hand, Muslims who had gone away will now return and in our determination to implement the Agreement, Muslims will not leave India. Our economy will thus be shattered and possible conflict within our country will be greater.
Seventhly - In the garb of protecting minorities in India, the Agreement has reopened the problem of Muslim minority in India, thus seeking to revive those disruptive forces that created Pakistan itself. This principle, carried to its logical conclusions, will create fresh problems for us which strictly speaking are against our very Constitution.
Forty lakh Hindus migrated to India by 1951
From the beginning of partition, some four million Hindus had migrated from East Pakistan, as described by Jawaharlal Nehru himself on the floor of Parliament on 7 August 1950. It is best to read in his own words as published in his Selected Speeches, Publications Division, Ministry of Information & Broadcasting, Volume 11, 1954:
I would like to draw your attention to another aspect of the East Bengal situation. We talk about forty lakhs of people having come away from East Bengal since the Partition. Half of them came before this year, long before this Agreement was concluded. Quite a number of them came almost immediately after the Partition, because they wanted to come away and that process, though slow, still continues. Mostly, it is the middle class elements that are leaving East Bengal on account of the pressure of circumstances. They have, in a sense, been squeezed out of East Bengal; they could not carry on their professions successfully, whether it was practice at the bar or the medical or any other profession. Many, however, stayed on. After all, you must remember that nearly a crore of Hindus are still in East Pakistan. It is a very large number. A very large number of middle class people have come away, especially people like teachers, after the February-March disturbances. As a result, schools were closed, educational institutions ceased to function; in short, the normal life of the minority community was completely upset. I do not know what the future holds. It may be that some new equilibrium will be established. Some people say that not a single Hindu can remain in East Bengal. I am not a prophet; I cannot say. Something my happen tomorrow to worsen the relations between India and Pakistan. That would widen the gap and make it more difficult for us. On the other hand, something may happen to bridge the gap. There are so many uncertain quantities that I cannot say what will happen. Normally speaking, I see no reason why a very large number of Hindus should not remain in East Bengal and a very large number of Muslims in West Bengal. Since the Agreement on April 8, there has been a continuous flow back of the minorities, both Hindu and Muslim, who had migrated previously.
Mookerjee suggests exchange of populations
Gandhi ignores suggestion
Later on while participating in the debate in Lok Sabha, on 15th November, 1951, on the question of migration of Hindus from East Pakistan, Dr. Mookerjee inter alia said: The question of the minorities in Pakistan has been settled during the last five years in different ways. So far as West Pakistan is concerned, today it stands virtually denuded of its minority population. During the last fortnight two shiploads of Hindu migrants came from Sind to India and I do not know how many thousands are still there. So far as East Pakistan is concerned, at the time of Partition the population of the Hindu minority was 1 crore and 40 lakhs. According to Government figures, about thirty lakhs have come out during the last five years. We do not accept the accuracy of these figures; but I do not wish to go into the details. If we refer to the last census report of the Pakistan Government itself, it appears that nearly 45 lakh Hindus have come out because according to that census the present Hindu population in East Bengal is about 95 lakhs.
Pacts and agreements were enacted between India and Pakistan on this issue, not once, not twice but thrice and all of us remember vividly the tragic circumstances under which the pact of April 8, 1950 was enacted. But inspite of the flowery language that was used on that occasion, the basic principles of the pact have been violated by Pakistan during the last two and a half years and we have witnessed during the last few months another mass migration… The creation of a homogenous Islamic State was the principal aim of the founder of Pakistan and those who have come into his shoes have carried that into execution in every possible way. Hindus have been deprived of their rights in every sphere - social, cultural, economic, religious and political. They are treated as zimmis.
Referring to the events on the eve of Partition, Dr. Mookerjee said that : At that time, I remember I met a number of Congress leaders and especially Gandhiji, and some of us begged of him to appreciate the real point of view, whether it will be possible for the minorities to live in Pakistan in view of the circumstances under which that new country was taking its birth. And we suggested a planned exchange of populations and property at Government level as part of the Partition scheme. He was not willing to accept it. The Congress leaders were not willing to accept it because their viewpoint was that what they were agreeing to was not a communal division of India but a territorial division of India.
Nehru against Population Exchange
Nehru said : An exchange of population is something which we have opposed all along. It is something which I consider not only undesirable but also not feasible. It is a question of arithmetic, apart from anything else. If we wanted an exchange of population between East and West Bengal and if we did it with the complete cooperation of both the governments on expert level and with every facility given,. it is calculated that it would take five and a half years and that, If no untoward event happened. Of course, many untoward events will happen in the meantime and, of course, there will be no such magnificent cooperation between the two governments either! All kinds of upheavals will take place during that period, so that one cannot think of this solution in terms of reality.
Fraud Perpetrated on the Hindus of India
To a Hindu, the arguments advanced by Jawaharlal Nehru, in or outside Parliament, were not convincing. They appeared contrived merely to escape having to take a firm stand against Pakistan. A Prime Minister, strong enough to lead such a large country as India, should have said: "Janab Liaquat, either you stop sending out Hindus or we would send a commensurate number of Muslims across your borders. If you indulge in ethnic cleansing, we shall be left with no choice. In any case, it was your party called the Muslim League led by Qaid-e-Azam Jinnah which had repeatedly insisted that there should be an exchange of population. On the other hand, we were generous enough not to press for uprooting people who had lived where they did.
Gandhi and Nehru perpetrated a fraud on the Hindus of India when they said, that it was a territorial division. The fact of the matter is that as early as 1931 Maulana Mohammad Ali at the first session of the Round Table Conference had told the British Prime Minister Ramsay MacDonald that he belonged "to two circles of equal size which are not concentric - one is Indian and the other is the Muslim world. He wrote : We are not nationalists, but super-nationalists and I as a Muslim say that God made man and the Devil made the nation." Earlier, Allama Iqbal in his Allahabad address to the Muslim League in 1930 had clearly mentioned the division of Indian Provinces into Muslim and Hindu Provinces. The 1940 Lahore Resolution was reiteration of those ideas expressed by Iqbal. Right from the beginning Muslim leaders had wanted vivisection of India on religious lines. Therefore, the Congress leaders' stand that the basis of India's division was territorial and not religious, is a fraud perpetrated by Gandhi and Nehru on the Hindus of India.
The ethnic cleansing of the Hindus/Sikhs from Pakistan in 1947-48 and ethnic cleansing now taking place in Bangladesh is an integral part of the process of Islamisation of these countries.
Lord Wavell's Verdict
In the last sixty years, Assam has experienced an enormous growth in its population. This is largely due to the Muslim infiltration from Bangladesh. The population of Assam went up from 180 lakhs in 1981 to 267 lakhs in 2001. The growth rate of Muslim population was 29.3 per cent between 1981-1991 and 33.2 per cent in the decade ending 2001. On the contrary, Hindu population registered a growth rate of 14.9 per cent and 19.1 per cent respectively in the corresponding decades.
Going back in time it is reported that there was a large and increasing number of Bengali Muslims who had been encouraged to migrate from the area in East Bengal (now Bangladesh) to Assam since the 1930's by a Muslim League Ministry headed by Sir Mohammad Saadulla…….The land had soon run short; but the influx continued. Lord Wavell notes in his diary in 1945 that while the reason for the encouragement of this migration was officially identified as being to grow more food, the real object was to grow more Mohammadans (this is quoted in B.K. Nehru, ICS's autobiography.